AN EARLY HISTORY OF THE
TEXAS HEREFORD ASSOCIATION
by Frank Reeves, as printed from the May 1959
(Editor's Note: The Texas Hereford
Association is now in its 60th year. Little history had been written
of the Association. Realizing that much of the information now available
would have been lost in a few years, we have obtained photographs
and asked Frank Reeves, Livestock Editor of the Fort Worth Star-Telegram
to write the Association history. We know of no one better qualified
to do this job. The many old clippings, books and records gleaned
from various sources plus his intimate knowledge of the men and
breed about which he writes make an interesting historical record.
All pictures of former presidents
and secretaries have been made into 11 x 14 portrait size and placed
in a leather-bound album in the Association office files. The few
that are missing will be added if they become available. We are
grateful to the many people who have supplied clippings, information
and pictures for this history.)
Sixty years of fruitful accomplishments and still growing! That
briefly but modestly describes the achievement of a handful of Texas
cattlemen who conceived and initiated the founding of The Texas
Hereford Association. The organizational meeting was held in a
in San Antonio on November 7, 1899. All the participants have gone
to the land of no return.
If through some act of
divine providence they are permitted to look down on this mundane
sphere and observe the realities of their initial thinking and organizational
activities, they undoubtedly are a thankful and grateful group of
cattlemen. Three score years ago Texas had an abundance of wide
open areas and no densely populated section. The present day urge
to organize had not developed to any appreciable extent.
The 1959 membership roll
of the Association and the common knowledge of what the Association
has consistently sponsored and achieved in the betterment of the
beef cattle industry in the Lone Star State is a matter of official
record. The record of the beef cattle industry shows undisputable
evidence of the part Texas Hereford breeders have played in supplying
beef for the nation. The nation's show ring records tell another
convincing story of what Texas bred Herefords have done. The records
of the American Hereford Association at Kansas City reveal that
Texas has more registered Herefords than any other state in the
Union. It seems fair to assume that if this group of men had been
composed of fainthearted doubters instead of the imaginative and
visionary men they were, the history of the Hereford industry for
Texas could have- been much less impressive.
A study of the early-day
records of the Association shows that these men had a definite credo
in mind as to the necessity for such an association. Evidently they
were thinking of the future of their favorite breed of cattle in
an unselfish manner rather than for immediate personal gains. Article
I of the By-Laws says: "Its object shall be the uniting, fostering
and protecting of the interests of the Hereford breeders of the
State of Texas." It can be said to the credit of the men who
have followed in the footsteps of these forward -looking, objective-thinking,
early-day cattlemen, that they have unhesitatingly accepted the
tenets of the founders. Not only have they raised the level of the
beef cattle industry in Texas, but they have participated in the
betterment of the breed for the entire United States and Mexico
in its program to provide more and better beef for the fast growing
population that throughout the years has regarded beef as its Number
One food item.
If a written record was
made of the names of the men who attended the first meeting in San
Antonio and those who actually joined and the names of the men who
were selected to direct the activities of this young organization,
no one has been able to find it. The word of mouth reports of relatives
and friends, all well-meaning and immensely helpful but dimmed by
years, do not always agree on just who did attend this and other
later early-day meetings. It is not only likely but highly probable
that some people are unintentionally overlooked in this report.
Anyone less resourceful and determined than your current secretary
would not have been able to gather as much as Henry Elder has brought
together. He has done this by writing many letters, personal interviews
and telephone calls. Numerically they are much larger than you suspect.
To all of these Henry Elder and this writer say "Thanks a million."
It is regrettable that this was not done many years earlier.
If there is one specific
thing for which this early-day group of cattlemen that founded and
kept going the Texas Hereford Association can be criticized for
not doing, it is their failure to keep complete and accurate records
of just what happened, who made it happen and who attended the meetings.
Pioneer cattlemen were woefully allergic to keeping records. Many
important cattle deals that ran into impressive figures were nothing
more than vest pocket memorandums that mentioned they had sold
or bought so many cattle of such and such ages for delivery about
such and such date at designated prices for particular ages. Many
of these vest pocket note books were retained no longer than the
starting of a new year.
A big majority of the
men who have served as president of the Texas Hereford Association
from the time it was organized in 1899 to 1959 have served more
than one term, but they have been consecutive terms with one exception.
George D. Keith of Wichita Falls was president in 1925 and 1926,
and then he was re-elected again in 1936 and 1937.
These 28 different men came from many sections
of Texas and people who knew them will tell you that there was a
wide variation in their personal characteristics and how they operated
their individual herd of Herefords, but they had one common characteristic-they
were dedicated to the betterment of Hereford cattle. They certainly
did follow any set pattern in their programs for serving the Association,
but their individual variations enabled them to solve problems due
to changing times. This variation in the approach to the Association
affairs probably helped rather than weaken the achievements during
this 60-year existence.
The number of men to
serve as Secretary has been about one-third as large as the number
who served as President. This has been due to the fact that most
of them have served for longer periods of time than the Presidents
did. Henry Elder and John P. Lee served as Secretary longer than
any of the others. Some of the records are a little vague as to
just how long John P. Lee served as Secretary. Here again their
varied personalities fit in well with changing conditions.
This review of the activities
of the Association during the first 60 years it was in existence
is not intended to evaluate the services rendered by different individuals.
Some of them will be, given more space than others, but this is
due to the fact that the families and friends of some had more data
CAPTAIN WILLIAM S. WARD
Capt. William S. (Sude) Ikard of Henrietta
was the first President and he is credited with being first in some
other things in connection with the Hereford industry. He was born
on July 7, 1847 in Smithville, Mississippi and Henrietta, Texas
was his home when he died on September 13, 1934.
Capt. Ikard had established
himself as an experienced cattleman long before he had ever seen
a Hereford. He and his brother operated for a time under the name
of E. F. Ikard & Bros. They started cattle ranching in Clay
County in 1871 and at one time their holdings contained around 60,000
While attending the Philadelphia
Centennial in 1876 he saw his first Hereford and was quick to realize
their superior meat characteristics over the cattle he had been
raising in Clay County.
Either on his way back
from the Philadelphia Centennial or a short time after he returned
to Texas, Captain Ikard went to Indiana and Illinois and purchased
some 10 or 12 animals. This was the beginning of several purchases
of Herefords for shipment to Texas. The cattle were purchased with
the full knowledge that there was a strong possibility they would
contact fever and die. Texas was infested with fever producing ticks
and a means of eradicating them had not been discovered. The cattle
were shipped to Denison and then driven to his Clay County ranch.
The mortality rate among the cattle brought in by Captain Ikard
was distressingly high from fever. One less determined would have
Just how many cattle
Captain Ikard purchased and brought to Texas and just how many died
is not known. A search through the first two volumes of the American
Hereford Record shows the following: Entry No. 699 was a bull named
Douglass that was bred by T. L. Miller of Beecher, 111. He was dropped
July 22, 1875 and his sire was Success 2 and his dam was Highland
Lady 700. This bull was registered by Ward Brothers, Henrietta.
Evidently this bull was purchased by Ikard.
Entry 862 was a bull
named Prince 2d that was dropped April 22, 1876. His sire was Success
2 and his dam was Highland Lass 701. These two bulls were sired
by the same bull and their dams were evidently sisters. This bull
was registered by Ikard Brothers. Ikard had three other cattle registered.
Entry 911 was the bull Sir Arthur 4th bred by Miller that was dropped
April 28, 1876. His, sire was Sir Arthur 2d and his dam was Duchess
of Beaufort. Entry 923 was the bull Thomas and dropped March 10,
1876 and his sire was Sir Arthur and his dam was Jenny Lind, and
he was bred by Ben Abbe of Elyria, Ohio.
Entry 934 was the bull Uncle Sam bred by Miller and
dropped March 5, 1876 and his sire was Prince 861 and his dam was
Dolly Varden 5th.
The late Lewis Johnson of Jacksboro, lived in the
Ikard home when he was a young man and was teaching school at Henrietta.
Before his death Johnson wrote the following:
first cattle registered by Captain Ikard are found in volume 11,
page 307 of the American Hereford Record. These are two cows, Miss
Valentine 42511 and Prairie Queen 42512; dropped Feb. 14 and Jan.
31, 1889, respectively. On the same page and on following page appears
the name of Willie S. & J. B. Ikard as having recorded two bulls.
Ikard of Sunnyside 42513 and Ikard 2d of Sunnyside 42514, and the
cow Patti 2d 42515, calved Jan. 30, March 28, and Jan. 30, 1890
firm name continued as W. S. & J. B. Ikard up to the dispersion
of the herd. It so happens that Captain Ikard’s initials are 'W.
S.' Contrary to general belief, the ‘W.S. Ikard' of W. S. &
J. B. Ikard was not the Captain, but his oldest child, a daughter
Willie Susan Ikard, now Mrs. Richard Carrow, and the 'J. B. Ikard'
was his second daughter, Jennie Belle Ikard, commonly known
as Pat or Patricia Ikard, now Mrs. Wallace Mellvain. Other later
registrations were made in the names of his sons and daughters."
early-day registrations made by Texans include the bull Cato registration
number 1121 that was registered by Reynolds Bros., Fort Griffin.
Registration number 1169 was a bull, Brighton, registered by Lee
Burleson of Bastrop had registration number 2771 for a bull named
is very likely that Captain Ikard did not register the animals as
he purchased them and certainly those that did not survive the fever
B. C. RHOME, SR.
B. C. RHOME, JR.
Most any Texan who knows anything about the early-day history of
Herefords can tell you that the Rhome family played a major
part in introducing Herefords in this area, that they had excellent
breeding stock and were active in developing shows, but it has been
difficult to get much specific data about their cattle operations.
is the only father-son team that has held the office of president
of the Texas Hereford Association and B. C. Rhome, Jr. also served
as secretary for a time. The Rhome herd participated in the first
livestock show held at Fort Worth, and the herd was one of the winners
at the State Fair at Dallas. Someone has recalled that one year
the Rhome show herd of Herefords started to the Dallas show in a
number of horse drawn wagons and a heavy rain caused so much mud
that the cattle had to be unloaded.
Cotten of Weatherford, and a nephew of Mr. And Mrs. B. C. Rhome,
Jr., has supplied this information.
B. C. Rhome, Sr., came to Texas as a boy from New York, and was
the son of Peter Rhome. He had a mercantile business at Aurora,
which was about three miles southwest of the present town of Rhome.
Later he moved his business to what is now Rhome, which he named
after Herefords were on exhibition at the Centennial at Philadelphia
in 1876, Rhome Sr., purchased his first Herefords, four heifers
and one bull.
C. Rhome, Jr., was born in 1880 and took charge of the ranch about
1898 and Rhome Sr. moved to Fort Worth. B. C., Jr., died
in 1941 and his widow was an honorary member of the association,
is recalled that Col. Rhome hired a herdsman named "Dad"
Short, and he is thought to be the first to wash and curl the hair
of the show cattle at Dallas. B. C., Jr., purchased brown sugar
by the barrel and each day he gave each show animal a handful of
sugar to make their hair glossy.
B. C. Jr., was manager of the Fort Worth show about 1907 or 1908,
in order to increase the number of herds at Fort Worth, which had
been losing money, he attended the American Royal at Kansas City
and invited the exhibitors to come to Fort Worth. He gave a dinner
and placed a fancy bottle of champagne at each plate. The next year
there was a large entry list and the show was a financial success.
Rhomes were careful to have brood cows that were good milk producers.
They purchased many of their herd sires from Gudgell & Simpson.
published lists of officers of the Association which were thought
to be correct evidently had some unintentional errors as to the
dates certain men served either as President or Secretary, and one
new President has been disclosed.
The J. F. Yearwood family of Georgetown, in
submitting some data, included a copy of the By-Laws of the Texas
Hereford Association and Minutes of the annual meeting on March
12, 1909, contains some overlooked facts. The Minutes under the
date of March 16, 1909 state:
"The annual meeting of The Texas Hereford
Association was held at Fort Worth, Texas, in the parlor of the
Delaware Hotel and was called to order by Col. Oscar L. Miles, President,
at 8:30 p.m. The following officers were present."
when Col. Oscar L. Miles was elected and whether he served one or
two terms is not known. It is in direct conflict with the old records
that list Phil C. Lee of San Angelo, as serving as president from
1908 to 1910. It would seem probable that Lee only served as president
for one year.
Another discrepancy disclosed by the minutes
shows that B. C. Rhome, Jr., of Saginaw, Texas, was then serving
as secretary-treasurer. Previous reports show that John P. Lee served
as secretary from 1906 to 1922. The minutes were signed by B. C.
Rhome, Jr., Secretary-treasurer.
The March 16, 1909 Minutes also lists P. C.
Lee as second vice-president. Later on the minutes state:
"The minutes of the last annual meeting
were read and approved.
The election of officers being the next order
of business, the following were elected for the ensuing year: J.
E. Boog-Scott, president, Coleman; R. H. McNatt, first Vice-President,
Fort Worth; J. B. Salyer, second Vice-President, Jonah, Texas; P.
C. Lee, third Vice-President, San Angelo; T. M. Hoben, fourth Vice-President,
Nocona; M. W. Hovenkamp, fifth Vice-President, Keller; B. C. Rhome,
Jr., Secretary Treasurer, Saginaw.
of the men who were elected as members of the Association included
the following: J. C. Dibrell, Coleman; J. L. Ely, San Angelo; J.
B. Cook & Son, Beeville, W. T. Lewis, Olga and A. F. Crowley,
Lee, M. W. Hovenkamp and R. H. McNatt were named as members of a
committee to audit the books of the secretary"
By-Laws and Minutes of the annual meeting of the Association under
date of March 15, 1911, state:
12th annual meeting of the Texas Hereford Association was held at
Fort Worth in the parlor of the Westbrook Hotel and was called to
order by J. B. Salyer, president, at 8:30 p.m. Phil C. Lee was shown
as First Vice-President and John P. Lee, San Angelo, as Secretary
election of officers being the next order of business, the following
were elected: J. B. Salyer, President, Jonah; Phil C. Lee, first
Vice-President; J. E. Boog-Scott, second Vice-President; J. C. Dibrell,
third Vice-President; C. M. Largent, fourth Vice-President; M. W.
Hovenkamp, fifth Vice-President; John P. Lee, Secretary-Treasurer."
a listing of the awards at the National Feeders and Breeders Show
for 1911 at Fort Worth, Lee Bros. of San Angelo had the grand champion
bull, Druid of Point Comfort. C. M. Largent of Merkel, had the grand
champion cow, Victoria
reports have listed J. E. Boog-Scott as serving as President for
the year 1913-1914. If that be correct, he, too, served as President
of the Association with a break between his terms of office. The
minutes for March 16, 1909 lists him as being elected as President.
The minutes also say that J. B. Salyer as president called the meeting
to order in 1911
men were so busy making Hereford history in Texas that they did
not take time to keep records.
COL. OSCAR L.
Little is known of Col. Oscar L. Miles except the records show that
he was listed as from Fort Worth and was elected president at the
annual meeting in 1908. He was known to have lived at Ft. Smith,
Frank Scofield, Austin,
veteran breeder and exhibitor of Shorthorn cattle, had this to say
about Col. Miles:
"He was the breeder
of Druid of Point Comfort. After Oscar Miles' death, his herd was
dispersed and Davis and Sons of Jackson, Mississippi, bought this
two year old bull Druid of Point Comfort, fitted him and showed
him at the International where he was Grand Champion bull. Frank
Harding was with me and his attention was called to the just crowned
Grand Champion in the arena at the International. I said, 'Frank,
this is a great regret to me that Oscar Miles could not have lived
to see this happen,' because he had visualized and talked with a
number of his friends a number of times that the height of his ambition
was to breed a bull good enough to be Champion at Chicago.
In the early part of
this century Oscar Miles had the top herd of Hereford cattle south
of the tick line. Oscar Miles was General Attorney for the Iron Mountain Railroad
System. I will say that Oscar Miles was a man among men and the
great Southwestern section of these United States was a better place
for the rest of us to live because Oscar Miles lived."
JOHN P. LEE
Brothers of Tankersley and frequently referred to as being from
San Angelo, earned a prominent place in the cattle and ranching
business in Texas by their long years of consistent service to the
cattle industry. The brothers were John P. and Phil C. and their
ranch was near Tankersley and earned high rank because of its many
years of existence under a continuous ownership. Their entry into
the registered Hereford business dates back to 1898. They were also
great admirers of good horses.
John P. Lee was born
in Philadelphia, where his father, Philip C. Lee, Sr., was a railroad
man. He was injured by a falling derrick and he moved his family
to San Antonio, Texas, on the advice of his doctor to go to a warmer
climate. This was in 1878.
The elder Lee bought
a herd of cattle at San Antonio in partnership with Dennis Riley
of Lancaster, Pa., a capitalist. The herd was moved in 1879
to a place on Spring Creek west of San Angelo where the Lees lived
in a dugout. The elder Lee was killed in 1890 when a horse fell
on him. John Lee was 14 years old when he assumed the management
of his father's estate. The Riley and Lee herd of 10,625 cattle
and some 75,000 acres of land were divided and the Lee family received
some 26,000 acres of the better land.
John Lee told Henry Elder
that he and his brother had been to the International Livestock
Show at San Antonio the year the Texas Hereford Association
was formed, 1899, but had to leave for the ranch and did not attend
the organization meeting.
When a livestock meeting
of any kind was held in Texas John P. Lee was likely to be there.
He was never radical in his views but always had the courage of
his convictions as to what was right or wrong and what seemed best
for the cattle industry. If the number of miles he traveled to attend
livestock events were known they would be startling.
In the early 1900's the
Lee herd of Herefords collected many prizes. In an interview for
The Texas Hereford he recalled that in 1911 the Champion Bull at
Fort Worth and San Antonio was from the Lee herd, and in 1910 and
1911, the first priz4 age herd at Fort Worth was the Lee entry.
This herd supplied the Champion Bull, Hereford of course, at the
Fort Worth show in 1907, Champion herd at San Antonio in 1908 and
the Champion Cow at the Texas State Fair at Dallas in 1910; first
and second place yearling heifers at Fort Worth in 1907, Champion
Bull at Fort Worth in 1906, Grand Champion Steer at the World's
Fair in St. Louis in 1904 and Champion Steer at Dallas, San Antonio,
Denison and Fort Smith, Arkansas in 1906.
He recalled the first
show held at Fort Worth when C. C. Slaughter of Dallas brought over
a bull in a box car and he was judged in the box car. Other old
timers recall that other show entries were tied to trees near where
the packing plants are now located. He was connected with the Fort
Worth Show for several years.
Lee purchased his first
registered Herefords, 16, cows and a bull, in 1898 from Billy Anson
of Valera. The cows cost $200 and the bull $500.
John Lee also told Henry
Elder that the following Hereford breeders were in San Antonio for
the show and he was reasonably sure they were in attendance when
the Association was *formed: W. S. Ikard, Henrietta; M. S. Gordon,
Weatherford; B. C. Rhome, Sr., Rhome; B. C. Rhome, Jr. Rhome; J.
F. Yearwood, Georgetown; J. B. Salyer, Jonah; Guy or Frank Newsom;
Tom M. Hoben, Nocona; John R. Lewis, Sweetwater; B. S. Coffee of
Nebraska and George town, Texas (a brother-in-law of J. F.
who was a guest). Mrs. Eunice Yearwood, Georgetown, daughter of
J. F. Yearwood, one of those definitely known to have at- tended
the organizational meeting furnished the same list of breeders in
attendance with only the addition of B. F. Coffee. Lee said "There
were about a dozen to attend the organizational meeting." The
International Livestock Show had attracted a large number of people
and the hotels were full and they had no place to meet so a boot maker
invited. the group to use his shop for their meeting.
One of the classic early-day
stories connected with the Fort Worth Show had John Lee as a main
actor. He was likeable, considerate and easy to get along with, but
like all good Irishmen he did not like to be pushed around.
At one of the Fort Worth
shows while he was Livestock Superintendent, one of the exhibitors
did not stand as high in the class as he thought he should. When
he was given his ribbon designating his placing in that class he
showed his displeasure by throwing the ribbon to the ground and
then stepping on it.
Lee usually had a merry
twinkle in his eyes, but those who saw this incident say his eyes
sparked beads of fire and he told the exhibitor in no uncertain
terms that he must pick up the ribbon and apologize to the judge
or he would never be allowed to show at Fort Worth again. The man
HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS
John P. Lee and J. E.
were the first two members to be honored as Honorary Members of
the Texas Hereford Association. This is all the record shows
up to 1945. Since that time the following have been so honored:
Phil C. Lee, San Angelo
Mrs. J. E. Boog-Scott, Godley
Mrs. R. J. Cook, Beeville
Mrs. B. C. Rhome, Jr., Fort Worth
Dr. Chas. H. Harris, Fort Worth
Mrs. Rupert Harkrider, Sr., Abilene
J. N. Edens, Corsicana
W. T. Montgomery, San Antonio
Charles Pettit, Walnut Springs
Fred Pronger, Stratford
P. J. Pronger, Sr., Stratford
R. T. Alexander, Canadian
Walter L. Boothe, Sweetwater
John C. Burns, Fort Worth
Mitchell M. Cox, Brownwood
John McInnis, Brownwood
R. J. Roeder; Sr., Yorktown
Harrie B. Winston, Snyder
J. E. Boog-Scott was widely known in all sections of Texas, but
Godley was his home during his later life. He was elected as president
of the association first 1909 and again in 1913 and re-elected in
For a number of years
he was in the cattle business near Coleman. That was before there
were any 4-H club boys, but he and some of his Coleman friends sponsored
a project somewhat similar to the present day 4-H Club work. He
urged the boys to feed cattle and then to further interest in such
work he brought wagon loads of toys to the Fort Worth show.
He was one of a group
of men that took several cars of cattle to Mexico and after having
them on display in Mexico he spent considerable time in disposing
of the cattle. This brought about better relations between the cattlemen
of Mexico and the cattlemen of Texas. It made it easier for the
officials of the two areas to better understand the needs of their
The Texas Hereford Association
made Boog-Scott and John P. Lee honorary life members of the association
without the payment of annual dues. They were the only two men ever
to receive this recognition.
J. E. Boog-Scott, Jr.,
took over the family ranch after the death of his father.
The late J. F. Yearwood of Georgetown, participated in the organization
meeting at San Antonio in 1899, and then served as president in 1917,
1918 and 1919, and later as a director. He was a cowman from every
angle and keenly realized the value of quality.
He was born Oct. 30, 1859 at Sweetwater in Monroe County in east Tennessee. His people came to the Carolinas from England during
the Colonial Days. He left his Tennessee home and arrived at Round
Rock, Texas, on May 2, 1879. Ten days later he went to work on a
farm for D. H. and J. W. Snyder and was there nearly two years.
In March, 1881, he left Round Rock in charge of a bunch of
saddle horses to be taken to the Jim Day pasture in Coleman County.
He helped to round two herds of cattle in Coleman and adjoining
counties. A. G. Boyce was in charge of the outfit. He went with the
trail herds to Julesburg Junction in Colorado. He worked for three
months on the LF ranch
on the line of Colorado and help to gather 5,300 beeves.
He went with the. last shipment to Chicago and from there to, Williamson
County, Texas. From there he
went to the Renderbrook Spring Ranch in Mitchell County and worked
for the Snyders on the JT Bar ranch. The Renderbrook Spring is
on what is now known as the Spade Ranch.
the Snyders sold their ranch to Elwood, Yearwood went to work on
the Yellow House and Spring Lake Divisions of the XIT Ranch. Soon
he was placed in charge of the Spring Lake Division. He left the
XIT Ranch in December, 1891 and returned to Georgetown and in February,
1892 he married Miss Josephine Coffee.
of Yearwood's friends thought he acted very foolishly when he paid
$170 for his first registered Hereford bull. He thought otherwise
and that marked the beginning of his entry to the ranks of the Hereford
fraternity. Through all
his years he continued to admire Herefords and he promoted the
industry in many ways giving advice to those who asked for
it and supplying others with foundation breeding stock.
was president of the Central Hereford Association, a member of the
Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association, he was an official
of the Waco Cotton Palace, and a director of the First National
Bank of Georgetown.
It was but natural that his sons and daughters
acquired their father's liking for Herefords. They are still raising
registered Herefords on the same place in Williamson County near
Georgetown that has been known as "Hereford Home" for
over sixty years.
is no information available about two of the men who served as president
of the association, J. B. Salyer, Jonah; K. H. Faulkner of Tolar.
R. J. COOK
R. J. Cook of Beeville headed the association as president in 1920,
and he died in Beeville in November, 1930. He not only was a breeder
of registered Herefords but he was president of the Bee County Fair
at the time of his death in Beeville - the fair was in session at
His father is thought
to be the first, certainly one of the first, to bring registered
Herefords into Bee County, but the exact date is not known. He drove
the cattle overland to get them to Bee County and many of them died
from fever. A distant relative has two silver loving cups that he
and his father, J. W. Cook, won with their cattle. One was awarded
to J. W. Cook & Son for having the champion load of Hereford
beef cattle at the National Feeder and Breeder show at Fort Worth
in 1912. It was given by the First National Bank of Fort Worth.
The other cup was for the first prize car load of Texas Fed cattle
and it was given by the Chamber of Commerce of Fort Worth in 1912.
He served as president
of the Commercial National Bank at Beeville for 12 years.
HENRY M. HALFF
The records show that Henry M. Halff of Midland was president of
the Texas Hereford Association 1921-1923. Material about him is
In addition to being
interested in Hereford cattle he was a land developer and was very
much interested in irrigation projects around Midland. In addition
to breeding and feeding cattle he was interested in hogs and horses.
He dealt in ranch and farm lands.
A booklet he got out
on land for sale carried a picture of Howard Hale, 9, who fed one
of Halff's Herefords, Colonel Exall that was listed as being "Grand
Champion Baby Beef" at the Fort Worth National Feeders and
Breeders show. He topped the auction sale at 16 cents a pound.
The date was not disclosed.
GEORGE D. KEITH
George D. Keith of Wichita Falls, served as president of the association
for four years. The first time he was president he served two terms,
1925 and 1926. Then in 1936 and 1937 he served two more years. The
association never had a more considerate and lovable member than
George D Keith. When he died a few years ago it brought sadness
to all who knew him.
Mrs. Keith, who is now
living on the ranch just cast o~, Wichita Falls with their two sons,
Kenneth and Jim, shared her husband's liking for Herefords and enjoyed
his friends. It is but natural that the sons appreciate the beef
making qualifications of Herefords. The Keith family had traveled
thousands of miles attending shows, sales and other cattle events.
Mrs. Keith one time told
this writer that the most comfortable seat she ever occupied was
a bale of hay at a cattle show. She explained that she would never
sit on a bale of hay until she was utterly worn out and once down
it was comfort at its best.
George Keith was a mild
mannered man and his calmness under all conditions encouraged confidence
in his fellow workers. He smoothed out many rough spots in the life
of the association both as an official and as a working member.
He was supremely loyal to his friends and very considerate with
those who occasionally differed with his views.
The Fort Worth show never
had a more loyal supporter. He joined with others in making the
Wichita Falls important center in the Hereford industry.
To mention George Keith
without saying something about Bill Mitchell would be unthinkable.
Mitchell died a few years ago after working for Keith some 40 years.
Their relations went far beyond that of an employer and employee.
The Keith herd produced
many show winners and it produced some bulls and females that helped
to make Hereford history in Texas.
W. T. LEWIS
The late W. T. Lewis of Sweetwater, served ' ed as president of the
association in 1927. His father, the late John R. Lewis, was the
first or one of the first men to bring registered Herefords into
the Sweetwater area. His brother, Charles Lewis, has kept the Lewis
name alive in the Hereford industry throughout the years. He is
very active in the National Anxiety Hereford Association and any
other matters pertaining to Hereford cattle.
Jennings T. Lewis, Blackwell,
Texas, son of W. T. Lewis, is also a breeder of registered Herefords
at the present time.
The late B. H. Conner of Claude was president of the association
in 1928. He was one of the early-day breeders of registered Herefords
in the Panhandle, and he was another good cattleman who admired
and bred Anxiety 4th Herefords.
Mrs. Conner furnished
the association with a copy of a sale catalogue that had an offering
of 28 head that sold at Fort Worth, March 7, 1923. The late Fred
Reppert was the auctioneer. Two fieldsmen were listed: Harry E. Allen
for the Hereford Journal and Ralph W. Dawson of the Daily Drovers
Telegram at Kansas City. Don Stanway was the main herd sire for
Conner at that time. He was a son of Bright Stanway and out of Donna
Anna 22d. Don Stanway was a full brother to Young Anxiety 4th, a
sire that was prominent in Mousel Brothers herd near Cambridge,
Neb. Bob and Henry Mousel are still breeding Herefords. Don Stanway
was calved April 30, 1915, and was bred by Budgel & Simpson
of Independence, Mo.
W. T. MONTGOMERY
W. T. Montgomery of San Antonio was president of the association
in 1929. He was drafted to serve over his protest and was not present
at the meeting the night he was elected. He declined a second term.
One thing he did while
president was to make a tour with R. J. Kinzer, secretary of the
American Hereford Association to visit a great many of the Texas
members of the national organization. It brought about a better
understanding between the two associations.
Montgomery owned an outstanding
herd of registered Hereford that were west of San Antonio and which
was sold to Joe R. Straus and took the name of Straus Medina Hereford
Club boys feeding calves
bred on the Montgomery Ranch won many prizes at major shows. He
was active in the San Antonio show and supplied foundation stock
for many South Texas herds.
JOHN M. GIST
The late John M. Gist of Odessa was president of the association
in 1930. Uncle Johnie, as most of his friends called him, was a
corner stone of the Hereford Industry some 30 years ago. He had
a heart of gold where club boys and girls were concerned.
He was one of the founders
of the Sand Hill Hereford Show at Odessa. It came into existence under the most unfavorable conditions imaginable. He undoubtedly
had a vision of what faith could accomplish. It seems a pity that
he did not live to see and enjoy the big modern coliseum and the
numerous barns that are now used at the show stock. His son, Marcus,
has set up an annual" prize money for club boys in Ector County
animals. It is a beautiful tribute to a grand old man.
Uncle Johnie was a trader
as well as a showman. If some one expressed a desire for a kind
of animal he usually had it or soon found it prospective buyer.
He bought many club animals actually should have been selling cattle.
He was a West Texas cattleman, and to his way of thinking was only
one good breed of beef cattle-Hereford& Herefords are the only
kind of cattle that in the Sand Hills Hereford Show.
W. J. LARGENT
Largent was reared at Merkel, but has moved" Hereford cattle
operations near Raton, New Mex. He served the association as president
in 1931 and 1932
Most of his friends call
him Willie Joe. He is known to as many Hereford breeders as any
man is United States. He is recognized as an outstanding and has
all the know how for displaying his animal to advantage. Naturally
he is a good judge of cattle and evaluate the possibilities of an
undeveloped animal as anyone. When he takes an animal into the
show it is well fitted and well trained. He has won his full of
prizes in all sections of the United States.
For years it was a firm
composed of C. M. Largest Sons. The sons were Tom, W. J., Roy R.
and C. M. Jr. was a great team. W. J. was the front man in the ring.
Some of the better herdsmen over the country their early training
at the Largent Ranch
Since moving to New Mexico
he has turned to b and showing Polled Herefords. The firm name is
W. J. gent and Son. If he were so inclined he could serve judge
at many shows. He prefers to show cattle rather than judge them,
and the United States has been his show ring.
WALTER L. BOOTHE
Walter L. Boothe of Sweetwater, was president in 1931, He is a typical
West Texas cattleman. He was born in Gonzales County where his father
was ranching, but his adult life has had Sweetwater as his headquarters.
His faith in Hereford
cattle has never faltered. Mm Boothe shares his liking for Herefords
and particularly so if they carry some of the blood of the great
Anxiety 4th. She has traveled many miles with her husband visiting
shows. sales and field days. They have purchased some of the most
popular bloodlines and they have produced and sold many good cattle.
For many years Sweetwater
Hereford breeders had one of the outstanding early-day auctions.
Boothe always did his share of the work to keep it a success.
At the annual THA banquet
and membership meeting in Fort Worth in January, 1957 he had the
distinction of being named an honorary member of the association.
During recent years the constitution was changed so as to permit
three outstanding members to be named as honorary members each year.
Also honored at that time were his fellow townsman and Hereford
breeder, Charles Lewis, and the veteran Hereford breeder John McInnis
of Brownwood. Some of the early-day Herefords owned by Boothe were
bred by John R. Lewis of Sweetwater, who was the father of Charles
Walter Boothe has always
been active in the civic life of Sweetwater and Nolan County. A
number of years ago he was a director for six years of Texas A&M
HARRIE B. WINSTON
Harrie B. Winston of Snyder, served as president of the Texas Hereford
Association for two terms, 1934 and 1935. He and his brother Wade,
who died a short time ago after being ill only a short time, had
some of the better known Herefords in Texas and they operated under
the name of Winston Brothers. Harrie was born in Archer County in
1890 and has lived near Snyder since 1907.
When Harrie was 14 he
and his brother started buying and selling commercial cattle. They
acquired their first registered Herefords in 1917. Their herd furnished
many breeders with foundation breeding stock. Club boys have done
well feeding steers bred by Winston Bros. For many years this firm
has enjoyed a steady demand for bulls to go to Mexico.
Harrie Winston is a student
of local, state, national and world conditions. He strives constantly
to determine what made certain things happen or what kept them from
happening. He studies economics from the cause and effect angle.
He is not given to making decisions until he has studied things
from all angles. Then he is apt to be rather positive in his belief,
but he is always tolerant of the view of those who are inclined.
to disagree with his views. He never assumes an attitude of being
infallible in his decisions. These traits were to his advantage
in his business dealings and he used them effectively while heading
He is recognized as a
capable judge of livestock and their values. He has long been active
in the affairs of the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers of Fort
Worth, and currently he is serving as one of its directors. He has
the respect and confidence of his home people and he is a willing
worker in worthwhile civic projects. There are few men in Texas
who have a better understanding of the beef cattle industry from
breeding until the meat is ready for the consumers than Harrie Winston.
At the annual meeting
of the Texas Hereford Association in Fort Worth in February, 1959,
he was made an Honorary member.
JAMES M. BROOK
The late James M. Brook of Brady headed the Texas Hereford Association
from 1938 through 1942 to mark up more years of service as president
than any other man. During the early days it was the custom for
the headquarters of the association to be located in the place where
the president resided. Four of these years Edwin R. John son was
secretary of the association and he too lived in Brady.
Jamie, as he was known
to his many cattle friends, was a cowman from every angle. He had
an excellent registered herd and they won many prizes. He was also
an extensive commercial cattle operator. He had some of the better
grazing land in McCullough County. The number of years he held the
office as president tell a convincing story as to the kind of service
he rendered or there would have been a change.
Jack Frost of Dallas was president of the THA in 1943 and 1944 and
the association headquarters were moved to Dallas.
When Jack Frost's
name is mentioned in Hereford circles anyone who knows anything
about Hereford cattle will instantly think of Anxiety 4th cattle.
It is possibly one of the better known families of Herefords in
the United States and its popularity continues. There is an Anxiety
4th Hereford breeders Association that has for a number of years
held a sale at Amarillo. Needless to say Frost has been a backer
of this association.
Frost became prominent with
his Herefords and sales at his White Hat Ranch near Blackwell
- he still operates that ranch. He operates another herd of Hereford
at his Bandy Ranch near Rotan, his Eskimo Ranch near Hereford and
about two years ago he acquired another ranch property near Siera
The late Tom G. Paterson
was secretary of the association during Frost's first term as president.
The association ran into financial difficulties due to a combination
of uncontrollable circumstances and no one will ever know just how
much of his own money Jack Frost put into the association to keep
R. L. WHEELOCK
Wheelock of Corsicana, headed the association during 1945. That
is the year that Henry Elder came to the association as secretary
and the headquarters were maintained at Corsicana. It is an open
secret that Wheelock dug down into his own pocket to make it possible
for the association to continue its business life.
Wheelock was a business
man and for several years he maintained a good herd of registered
Herefords and had out a show string of cattle. Despite the fact
that his various business interests made it necessary for Wheelock
to curtail his Hereford activities, it is a safe bet that he remains
an ardent booster for the breed and remembers pleasantly his activities
as a breeder and exhibitor.
ROY R. LARGENT
Roy R. Largent of Merkel was president of the association two terms,
1946 and 1947. During that time he worked about as much for his
fellow Hereford breeders as he did for himself, and almost invariably
Mrs. Largent made all the trips. They have two sons, Rust and David,
and they are actively engaged in the Hereford industry.
Roy Largent helped many
club boys get started feeding Herefords. This help ranged from supplying
them with calves to helping them work out a feeding formula. If
a calf got sick they were more inclined to call Roy than they were
Roy was president and
a director of the American Hereford Association, and this broadened
his acquaintances among leaders in the industry.
He has fed and shown
many prize winning Herefords in the breeding cattle class and the
fat steer classes at major shows over the country.
He has an attendance
record at the Fort Worth show that probably can not be equaled by anyone else in Texas. At the 1958 spring show at Fort Worth he
was honored for his outstanding contribution to the Hereford industry
and the Fort Worth show. There was a special day designated to honor
him, and many of his -friends from Texas and the entire United States
were on hand to pay tribute to him.
His father is the late
C. M. Largent and he says he has been working with show cattle ever
since he was big enough to carry a feed bucket.
R. PRYOR LUCAS
R. Pryor Lucas of Berclair, probably did more to bring about 4,better
understanding between the registered Hereford breeders and the commercial
ranchers than any other president. , He served two terms, 1948 and
In addition to being
an up-to-date business man, he had been working with registered
Herefords for many years. He was a commercial cattle rancher. While
he was still in his teens his father sent him to Kansas City to
buy registered bulls. His father, the late Cyrus B. Lucas was at
one time president of the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers
Pryor Lucas knew what
it was to handle cattle when conditions were good and when they
were bad. His ranching experience included periods of drought and
times when there was plenty of moisture. He had sold cattle when
they were high and he had sold them when they were low. He brought
this valuable training with him to the association and he gave generously
of his time.
He liked people immensely.
He was a good mixer and he kept in close touch with cattle conditions
in all sections of the United States. Mrs. Lucas shared her husband's
liking for cattle and meeting people. She continues to make sales
and shows that are not too far from Berclair.
Pryor Lucas liked to
attend auctions. He enjoyed bidding and frequently got cattle in San Antonio.
J. M. NORTH
The two terms served as president of the Texas Hereford Association
by the late J. M. North, Fort Worth business executive, 1950-1952,
has been described by some as "getting on the main line"
as a going business concern. There was an increase in active members
and a noticeable upturn in associate business firms and banks.
The Texas Hereford Association
with its permanent headquarters at Fort Worth, stepped into the
spotlight for national recognition when it served as host to the
National Hereford Congress in 1952 that brought leading breeders
and students of Hereford breeding practices to Fort Worth.
It was President North
who gave the nod of approval for making The Texas Hereford a monthly
magazine for keeping its members advised of both state and national
happenings. Drawing on his long years of experience as an editor
and a careful evaluation of the value of printed words, he interested
some of the members in providing a special contribution for the
purpose of promoting Texas Herefords and the Texas Hereford Association.
Forty-one members contributed $3,975 to this fund. Some of it was
used for advertising in livestock journals, getting the association
magazine started and providing trophies for judging contests.
The Texas Hereford Association
during this period sponsored a Short Course at Abilene with the
West Texas Hereford Association and another in cooperation with
the Panhandle Hereford Association at Amarillo.
It was during this period
that the association was*very active as well as successful in assisting
members in the sale of some of their cattle. The records for 1951
show that more than $400,000 was paid to members for around 1,000
cattle that were sold by members in which the association cooperated.
The Association and its
monthly magazine, The Texas -Hereford, in their joint efforts functioned
in a businesslike manner that placed the association in a place
of prominence among other state organizations. In many respects
it intensified the objectives of the founders in "Uniting,
fostering and protecting of the interests of the Hereford breeders
of the State of Texas."
Ted Alexander, Canadian, gave generously of his time and talents
while serving as president of the association during 1953-54. By
birth and education he was well fitted for his duties. He grew up
on one of the better known registered Hereford establishments in
the Panhandle. One of his boyhood teachers, his father, R. T. Alexander,
learned ranching the hard way when plain quality cattle dominated
the range lands of Texas. He made a gradual change from the plain
cattle to registered Herefords and their important role in upgrading
and increasing the tonnage of beef in Texas.
President Alexander did
one thing in particular that was new. Almost single-handed, he inaugurated
and put in action the Lone-Star-Register-of-Merit, which was patterned
after the Register-of-Merit of the American Hereford Association.
It will always be something to which he can look back on with much
satisfaction. It was a further incentive for breeders to show their
cattle where it could bring recognition to their owners. It gave
recognition to owners of bulls that could sire winners in-Register-of-Merit
Shows were at Iowa Park, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio,
Amarillo and the official state show at Palestine.
The increase in the number
of animals shown meant more money and better classes of show animals.
It was during President
Alexander's administration the association amended the by-laws and
made it possible for the Executive Committee to select three Honorary
Members each year.. Under this new ruling the three members named
for this honor for 1953 were Mrs. Rupert Harkrider, Abilene; George
D. Keith, Wichita Falls, and Dr. Charles H. Harris, Fort Worth.
With all due respect to members who have and will receive this honor
in years. that followed, it will be difficult to find three breeders
who were more deserving because of their steadfast faith and loyalty
to Hereford cattle.
It was during this period
that the second annual Texas Hereford Round-Up Sale was held that
saw 466 head of cattle go through the auction ring in one day at
Fort Worth that brought their owners $114,035. This was no record making
sale price wise, but it came at a time when breeders were anxious
to decrease their herds. Drought conditions were an uncontrollable
factor that made it desirable to reduce herds.
President Alexander and
Secretary Elder attended the National Hereford Congress at East
Lansing, Michigan in 1953.
Henry Arledge, Seymour, served the association as president in 1955-1956.
One of the things he did that earned for him the praise of his members
was the employing of Bert Reyes as special representative to initiate
the movement of cattle from drought-stricken areas into Mexico. Such
action has no precedent in the history of the Association.
This action was made
all the more hazardous from a policy standpoint because of a lean,
bank account of the Association and the program did involve an appreciable
outlay of extra money. Drought conditions had grown increasingly
This action paid dividends
far beyond the expectations of its originators. Mexico was in a
buying mood and it was not long before Texas Herefords began to
move into Mexico, and they are continuing to move into that area.
Bert Reyes is a graduate
of Texas A&M College and he served as a member of the U. S.
armed forces In active duty in a battle area. Another of his many
accomplishments was his fluent use of the Spanish language which
enabled him to talk with cattlemen from Mexico.
Bert Reyes actually grew
up under the influence of one of the Association's outstanding presidents,
Pryor Lucas of Berclair. Reyes father has been bookkeeper at the
ranch for many years.
Instead of being an expense,
Bert Reyes was a revenue producer, a goodwill builder and he made
many friends for the Association on both sides of the Rio Grande
The Arledge-Elder team
conceived and inaugurated another popular and revenue producing
project- sponsoring the sale of feeder cattle at market centers,
Fort Worth, San Antonio, Houston and in East Texas. Not only did
these sales bring some money into the Association's bank account,
but it rendered a service to the ranchers who supplied the cattle
and focused the attention of feeders to Texas as a source of supply.
Many of these special feeder cattle went into Northern States.
There was a small increase
in members for the association despite drought conditions that actually
eliminated some herds or drastically reduced others.
R. J. ROEDER, JR.
R. J. Roeder Jr., of Yorktown while serving as president during
1957, faced a change in conditions that were quite different to
those prevailing during recent years. It was somewhat of a reconstruction
period that had some problems despite the fact that one of the most
severe droughts on record had ended.
The beef cattle industry
of the United States -it was not limited to the Hereford breed-was
emerging from a new handicap that has no counter part in the history
of the beef industry -dwarfism. Fear and suspicion that had been
gaining ground among beef cattle owners were being replaced by a
realization that it was not an insurmountable problem.
Roeder grew up on a South
Texas registered Hereford cattle ranch founded by his father, R.
J. Roeder, Sr. This practical experience plus his college training
as a student and then as an instructor at Texas A&M College,
helped him to adjust himself to a new set of conditions.
While he was a member
of the armed forces and in England he had familiarized himself with
some of the beef cattle problems of that country. In addition to
playing an important role in founding the Hereford breed of cattle,
it has learned to face problems with a determination to win.
His administration unquestionably
was faced with more problems than any other one in the history of
It was during his administration
that the constitution was changed to make it possible to have four
vice presidents with each from and serving a different section of
the state to advise and work with the president
The year 1957 was a most
trying period for all parties concerned, but many of the problems
had been recognized and solved, and when judged from all angles
the association was stronger and better equipped to take care of
itself than it was some 12 months earlier. College men and practical
ranchers were working together for the betterment of the beef cattle
TOMIE M. POTTS
Tomie M. Potts of Memphis, was elected president of the Texas Hereford
Association early in 1958 and as this is being written he is nearing
the half-way mark of his second term.
Tomie, as everyone calls
him, brought to the association an unusual number of desirable characteristics
that are so important for any organization
He is likeable, approachable
and a good mixer. Tomie has a keen sense of humor and as a storytelling
entertainer he is better than many professionals who make their
living as public speakers.
Mrs. Potts shares her
husband's liking for good Herefords, and long before he became president
of the association they were traveling long distances to be present
at shows and sales. Not only do they like good Herefords, but they
have invested good money for foundation seed stock.
Potts is a business man
at Memphis and he takes a leading part in all the projects that
are intended to make Memphis a better place to live. He will never
tell you anything about his hometown activities, but his fellow
townsmen take pride in reporting on what he has done, and is doing.
His willingness to work
and his business training have been very helpful to him in planning
and executing programs for the association. He has a keen sense
of news value but is never a publicity seeker.
Tomie's column in the
Association's monthly magazine, The Texas Hereford, is in a class
by itself. It is a pleasing combination of sound thinking and clean
THE SECRETARIES OF THE ASSOCIATION
M. S. Gordon of Weatherford is listed as the first secretary of
the association and served from 1899 to 1905. Some people thought
he was either connected with the T & P Ry. Co. or the T &
P Coal Company and perhaps the town of Gordon was named for him.
That was not the case.
When he left Weatherford,
probably shortly after he ended his services with the association,
it is thought he went north-possibly to Ohio, but it has been impossible
up to this time to get further data about him.
JOHN P. LEE
John P. Lee who served as secretary and his brother Phil C. Lee,
one of the early-day presidents, have been mentioned in another
section of this review.
JOHN C. BURNS
John C. Burns of Fort Worth served as secretary of the association
from 1923 through 1926. It fell to his lot to get the office of
secretary on a business basis as the men who served prior to his
election were only part time workers, with most of the work being
done during the show season at Fort Worth.
In addition to setting
up the office and working with association sales and shows, it is
almost certain that he rendered an additional service to the
members of the association by advising them in breeding programs and show
programs. As a practical ranch reared youngster, a college trained
man and an instructor at A&M College, he was a recognized cattle
judge of ability. He probably did then just as he has always done
throughout his business career, help others to solve some of their
problems. He has the ability and disposition to do that in a most
MRS. J. C. TURLEY
J. C. Turley of Fort Worth, was in charge of the office when Burns
went into other work. She had worked in the office while Burns was
secretary. She handled the office from 1927 through 1930.
D. G. TALBOT
Talbot a Fort Worth reared boy and a graduate of Texas A&M College,
was secretary from 1931 through 1933. Since his college training
had featured livestock work, he ran the office, helped with sales
and auction, did some judging and assisted the members in many ways.
Talbot is a resident of Fort Worth and continues work with livestock.
Turner who was reared at Hillsboro and graduated at Texas A&M
College, was secretary from 1934 through 1938. His college training
and liking for livestock enabled him to assist the breeders and
help the club boys with their livestock projects. He was not a full
time employee and neither was Talbot.
EDWIN R. JOHNSON
R. Johnson became secretary in 1939 and served through 1942. This
was while James M. Brook was president and the office was located
at Brady. He was a full time employee and having worked on a livestock
publication in Colorado before he came with the association. He
got out more publicity and assisted with more shows than ever before.
When he left Texas he went back to the Northwest in another branch
of the livestock industry.
TOM G. PATERSON
Paterson was secretary of the association in 1943. Headquarters
were at Dallas and Jack Frost was president. He died while in office.
Your secretary at this time, 1959, Henry Elder, came to the association
in 1945 after the association had been without one for about a year.
It is common knowledge that under his supervision it has reached
an all-time high in memberships and achievements. He has had wonderful
cooperation because he is a hard worker and knows how to get along
He was born in DeWitt
County on Feb. 14, 1914. He got his Bachelor's degree from Texas
Technological College at Lubbock in 1935 and his Masters Degree
in 1945. He was a member of the livestock judging team from Tech
that won at the Chicago International in 1934. After his family
and his friends, Herefords come next with Henry.
Better general business
conditions have helped the association in many respects, but it
has also challenged the resourcefulness of the official family of
the Texas Hereford Association to be leaders in the beef cattle
industry instead of bringing up "the drag."
The handful of forward
looking Hereford breeders who formed the Texas Hereford Association
in a boot shop in San Antonio in 1899 undoubtedly would take much
pride in their accomplishments if they could have but a fleeting
glance at the 1959 edition of their association. They and their
followers pinned their faith on a good product HEREFORDS.